It occurs at an altitude of 4 to 10 thousand feet from Kashmir to Arunachal in the Himalayan region. Nepal is its original producing country. At some places, efforts have been made to grow in the hilly areas of Central India and the mountains of South India.
Its corpus is half to one and a half meters long, round with branch and four corners of yellowish yellow. Leaves broad-lanceolate, up to 10 cm long, 3 to 4 cm wide, pointed at the obverse. Goes down big and small up. Flowers are painted on green, yellow in between, painted on purple, with many branching inflorescence. The flower has outer and medial cusps with 4-4 segments and each has two glands. The fruits are elliptical of long round, small one quarter inch and the seeds are majority, small, multicolored and smooth. Flowers come in the rainy season. When the fruits ripen till the end of the rains, they store them in the autumn. This plant does not have any special smell, but the taste is pungent.
Its almanac and flowers are used. Due to not being available very quickly, adulteration is enough. In the almanac, it is also mainly of kand which is two to three feet long. Its bark is flattened, slightly bent on the inside and brown on the outside and pink on the inside. On chewing, the bark appears to be fibrous, crunchy, astringent. Fine lines are drawn on the inside of the bark. Many species of Supersia salivary are used in adulteration. Some of these are sweet or mountainous salicylic (Succia angustifolia), Surcia alata, Baimac-lata, Ciliata, Densifolia, Lobby miner, Paniculata. In addition, Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) and Manjistha (Ruvia codiophilia) are also adulterated in salinity.
Kalmegh has also been named Green Chiraita. The only way to identify them is that despite being one or the other, the remaining taste is half-tikt or sweet. The texture of the bark can be distinguished by looking carefully. Part of the medulla is visible on the transverse cut. It is soft, easily dissociated. The remaining tests are performed on the basis of chemical analysis. According to which the Tikta Sattva should be at least 1.3 percent. The stem of the sweet chirayate is rectangular and the medulla part is comparatively less as compared to the real chirayate. All the remaining drugs can be identified by their specific symptoms.
It is considered by almost all schools to be the best medicine for typhoid fever, ulcers, blood, defects. Thus, it is a type of anticancer medicine, which removes the root cause of fever. Similarly, due to the sharpness of the phlegm, gall bladder and hot semen, it is a pain killer. It avoids any infection caused by all these defects. Leaves leprosy, worms and ulcers.
Chirayate contains a bitter acid of yellow-ophalic acid. Apart from this acid, there are other bioactive components. Two types of bitter gulgicosides chirayanin and amerogentine, two crystallinphenols, a yellow colored neutral crystal compound called gentiopicrine, and a new type of xanthon named 'suarchiran'. Glycosides called amerogentin are one of the world's most bitter substances. Its bitterness is felt even in the negligible concentration of one part in one crore forty lakhs. This active ingredient is also the main reason for the medicinal potential of Chirayate. According to the standards set by the Indian Pharmacopoeia, the chirate should have 1.3% of its liquid content. In the dissertation written on its material side, BHU Dr. Premvrat Sharma has elaborated on the properties of each of its chemical constituents and their experimental effects.
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